Day 1 :
University of Texas at El Paso, USA
Keynote: Advances in understanding and commercialization of the transition metal sulfide (TMS) catalytic materials
Time : 10:30-11:10
Russell R. Chianelli is currently Director of the Materials Research and Technology Institute at the University of Texas at El Paso and Professor of Chemistry, Materials and Environmental Science and Engineering. After receiving his PhD, he joined the Corporate Research Laboratories of Exxon Research and Engineering Co in 1974. While at this laboratory he conducted research in both fundamental and applied areas of interest to the energy industry. He is recognized worldwide for his work in Transition Metal Sulfide environmental catalytic materials. This work resulted in over 130 publications and 60 issued United States patents. During this period he was active in the Materials Research Society (MRS), serving as vice president (1989), president (1990), past president (1991) and Counselor (1992-1994). In 1996 he joined the Chemistry Department at the University of Texas at El Paso as Chairman and Professor of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences. In 2001 he resigned as Chemistry Department Chairman to head the Materials Research and Technology Institute (MRTI) at UTEP. The MRTI is dedicated to research relevant to the US/Mexico border in Materials related to energy, environment and health.
The recent development of commercial software enables determination or prediction of catalytic activity. This has led to commercialization and potential commercialization of the TMS catalytic materials as described in reference 1. Additionally, we have developed a fundamental understanding of the catalytic materials as described in reference 2. This report will describe how the following interdisciplinary scheme has been applied to the TMS catalytic materials:
Theory <---> Synthesis <---> Characterization <---> Application
Shell Oil after WWII commercialized unsupported TMS catalytic materials but these were soon replaced for commercial reasons with the currently popular Al203 supported catalysts. In the 1970’s researchers concluded, incorrectly, that the Al203 was fundamentally involved in the Promotion Effect. This effect today is understood in detail as the sharing of non-bonding d electrons in clusters that mimic noble metal for example Co9S8 + MoS2. This result we call Goldilocks, which will be discussed during the report.
The model described in reference 2 is a detailed realization of the Contact Synergy described in reference 1. MoS2 interfaces with Co9S8 with a lattice fit at 1 1 1 crystal face. This creates at the interfaces a cubic lattice with the appropriate Co/Mo electron transfer allowing observed promotion. We will now discuss in detail the structure and meaning of Contact Synergy. Several papers are in preparation on this subject and will be discussed in detail.
Sulphide (TMS) Catalysts, HydroDeSulfurization (HDS), Promotion and Contact Synergy.
Institute of Combustion Problems, Kazakhstan
Time : 11:30 - 12:10
Z A Mansurov is a General Director of the Institute of Combustion Problems, Kazakhstan. His scientific activity includes study and investigations of kinetics and mechanisms of hydrocarbon combustion and structure of cool soothing flames: catalytic carbon formation and its applied aspects. In 2002, he received Diploma for discovery of “Phenomenon of low-temperature cool-flame soot formation”. His professional career includes longstanding activity in INTAS Council of Scientists (Representative from Kazakhstan); participation in various international conferences including NATO-Workshops, author of more than 600 scientific papers; Editor-in-Chief of “Eurasian Chemico-Technological Journal” indexed at Scopus and “Combustion and Plasmochemistry Journal”.
Emergency oil spills during transportation of them by water way, from offshore oil drilling rigs and other sources can rapidly result in harm to the ecosystem and leads to negative and social impact. Oil, which falls on the water surface, prevents the penetration of sufficient sun lights and reduces the level of oxygen dissolved in water and it is make a great harm to the flora and fauna of water area. Therefore the development of effective methods on oil spill elimination is a task of singular importance. It is now one of the most common methods of oil spill on the surface is burning. Burning can be used where other methods are not effective spill response, and can be done in parallel with other methods of spill after determining an appropriate method for a particular site or geographic region. In the paper provides an overview of the current state of the problem, and research results on combustion of Karazhanbas and Tengiz oil on water surface were carried out. It has been established that minimum thickness of oil blanket, allowing to initiate and support combustion process, lie in the range of 3 - 5 mm. For ignition and maintenance of stable combustion of oil on water surface, the synthetic sorbent was suggested. It is found that, the synthetic sorbent accelerates the combustion process of oil on water surface threefold in comparison with combustion process of oil without sorbent. It is shown that the remaining mass of oil on water surface after combustion process termination, presents the bitumen substance, having a good adherence and strong adhesion, that allows to take it with high efficiency by mechanical method.
Aligarh Muslim University, India
Time : 12:10 - 12:50
Mohammad Kamil is presently the Professor and Chairman of the Petroleum Studies Department , Z.H. College of Engineering and Technology, A.M.U. Aligarh. He received his B.Sc. Engg.(Chemical ) degree from AMU Aligarh, M.Tech from Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India & his Ph.D. in 1993. His research mainly focuses on heat transfer in two-phase flow, natural flow boiling, Petroleum Processing, modelling and simulation and polymer surfactant interactions. He and his co-workers have published more than 130 articles in the International and National journals and conference proceedings. He has been on the organizing committee for several international and national conferences. He has received outstanding awards in academia and presently working as Honorary Secretary of the IE(I) , ALC Aligarh .
Interaction between the polymer and surfactant has been extensively studied for its widespread applications in many industries. They play an outstanding role in pharmaceuticals, detergents, pesticides, cosmetics, and enhanced oil recovery. Specific interests on the polymer and ionic surfactant systems are because of its characteristic physicochemical properties at different possible combinations. The characteristic behaviour of polymer with surfactant is similar to surfactant micellization in solution and occurs above a critical aggregation concentration (cac) which is lower than the corresponding critical micelle concentration (cmc). It is well known that the hydrophobic character of both the polymer and surfactant is responsible for the interaction. The nature of these interactions has been investigated and reported by few researchers and reported that surfactants at high concentration can displace polymer from the air/water interface depending on the system. Limited work has been reported on interaction of Xanthan gum with CTAB and gemni surfactant (16-5-16) . Therefore present study describes the interaction between the cationic gemini (16-5-16) surfactant and their conventional counterpart with a polymer at different temperatures and to see the effect of hydrophobicity and the molecular interactions by using the surface tension measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between water soluble polymer (Xanthan gum) with cetyltrimethylaaminium bromide (CTAB), and gemini surfactant, bis (hexadecyldimethylammonium) pentane dibromide (16-5-16) at two temperatures 310.15 K and 318.15 K by using surface tension measurement . The behaviour of surfactant –polymer interaction was found to be dependent on both surfactant and polymer concentrations. After the critical aggregation concentration (cac), interaction between the water soluble polymer and surfactants was started and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), normal micelle formation started and now polymer was saturated by surfactant with no further change of surface tension of the solution for particular concentrations of the polymer solution. It was found that the gemini surfactant interacts strongly with Xanthan gum as compared to conventional surfactant CTAB.